Principle of Novelty
In this article, you will learn about motivation and also you will learn here about the motivational concept and about self-motivation.
What is motivation?
Motivation is a set of internal or external factors that partly determine a person’s actions.
Entering the psychological aspect of the concept, one of the most basic, but at the same time most complete, definitions of motivation are:
Motivation is an internal state that encourages, directs, and maintains behavior. (Woolfolk, p.372)
According to López (p.73), there are five motivational principles, namely:
Principle of predisposition. When we are positively predisposed towards a task, its execution is almost always pleasant. When we change the “why?” by the “why not?”, or the “this is unbearable” by the “what am I learning from this situation?”, or “I’m angry because …” by the “I wonder why I am getting angry at this fact »(That is, I exchange anger for curiosity), we are applying this principle.
Principle of consequence. We tend to reproduce experiences that have pleasant consequences and not repeat those that have unpleasant consequences. When we obtain an equal or better consequence than expected, we feel rewarded and we keep, consciously or unconsciously, that pleasant memory for which we tend to repeat that strategy.
Principle of repetition. When a stimulus elicits a certain positive reaction, the link between the stimulus and the response can be reinforced with exercise or repetition. Thus, mastery in the execution of a task will be given, among other aspects, by repetition that is reinforced by modeling towards excellence.
Principle of novelty. All things being equal, controlled news tends to be more attractive and motivating than what is already known. This principle is true as long as it is approached with certain control and with a high dose of personal security since, otherwise, the phenomenon of resistance to change may appear.
Principle of the experience. Relate an experience that has been pleasant to us with what we wanted to achieve can be very motivating, that experience can refer both to some experience previously lived and to some novel experience that we can carry out by sensory management.
From the definition of motive, Carrasco ( p.215 ) establishes the following concept of motivation:
A motive is something that constitutes value for someone. Motivation, then, is made up of the set of values that make a subject “get going” to achieve it. Motivation makes us come out of indifference to try to achieve the intended goal. There is no difference between motive and value: it motivates what is worth for each subject.
In this approach to the concept of motivation, the following elements are found:
Indifference: “regular” state of the subject who has not yet found any reason to take action.
Reason: that something that mobilizes the subject, in this case, it is identified as a «value».
Objective: what the subject wants to achieve once it has started.
Satisfaction: state of the subject once the objective has been reached.
It follows then that a typical motivational process would be something “linear”, of cause-consequence, like the one expressed in the following graph:
Motivation concept: the basic process
This being the case, it could be said that once the subject reaches the objective (satisfaction), that motive that made it start is no longer a mobilizing factor, so the subject will return to the state of indifference that comes naturally to him.
Sometimes the terms motivation and satisfaction are confused, so we clarify:
Motivation is the drive and effort to satisfy a desire or goal, it is prior to the result.
Satisfaction is the taste experienced when we achieve the desire, it is after the result?
From another perspective ( Ardila, p.83 ) motivation is conceived as an intermediate variable (of behavior), that is to say, that motivation itself is not observed, but motivated behavior is observed and the existence of the motivation.
The following figure shows the scheme of motivation as an intermediate variable, the intermediate link is not observed but is inferred by the antecedent conditions and consequent behavior. The consequent behavior is observed, the antecedent conditions are manipulated, and the intermediate variable is inferred:
Motivation as an intermediate variable of behavior?
Taking into account the antecedent conditions and the consequent behavior, the following elements are then taken into account
Intrinsic motivation: Motivation associated with activities that are self-reinforcing. What motivates us to do something when we don’t have to.
Extrinsic motivation: Motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishments. When we do something to get a grade, avoid punishment, please the teacher, or for some other reason that has little to do with homework.
Locus of causality: The location – internal or external – of the cause of the behavior. From the mere observation of behavior, it is impossible to say whether its motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic.
Thus, a more technical definition is reached:
Motivation is the concatenated set of psychic processes (which involve higher nervous activity and reflect objective reality through the internal conditions of the personality) that by containing the active and relatively autonomous and the creative role of the personality, and in its constant Reciprocal transformation and determination with external activity, its objects, and stimuli, are aimed at satisfying the needs of the human being and, as a consequence, regulate the direction (the object-goal) and the intensity of activation of the behavior, and are manifested as activity motivated. (González, p.52)
In the following video, an introductory presentation is made to the subject of the psychology of motivation, a more complete description is made, than the one previously exposed, of the concept of motivation:
What is self-motivation?
Self-motivation is the motivation that one gets from the knowledge of its operation and its causes. That is, we speak of self-motivation when one plans to regulate the force that pushes him to act, based on the knowledge he has about himself. In this sense, and putting the term into practice, it is a conscious activity, a reflective subject, who tries to be the agent of his behavior.
Is self-motivation different from intrinsic motivation? You could say that self-motivation is the next level of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is something more instinctive than elaborate, while self-motivation requires a process that, according to Jiménez ( p.58 ), has, at least, the following components:
Clear objectives. Self-motivation thrives on well-defined goals, as specific as possible. If they are long-term, the better.
A plan to achieve them. Self-motivation feeds on awareness of how to achieve goals.
Decision action. It is essential that action is taken to achieve purposes. Action makes a difference.
What is motivating
According to Urcola (pp. 54-59) to motivate is to provoke in other energy that moves them towards a certain destination and whose strength or root is outside (extrinsic motivation), or within them (intrinsic or transcendent motivation – transcendent motivation is one that produces benefits in other people—)… Motivate is to give or have a reason for action… Motivate is to seek that a person does what they should do because they want to, not because they have a reward or punishment ( ideal motivation)… To motivate it is essential to know the needs and desires of the subjects we want to motivate, to know what it is that moves them.
Motivation focused on work and organization
The following definition expresses this concept in a simple but very clear way:
“Motivation is the will to make a great effort to achieve the goals of the organization, conditioned by the ability to make the effort to satisfy some personal need.”
If we detail the definition we see that there are aspects that stand out, either explicitly or implicitly, they are:
The effort, energy deployed by the individual, which must be aimed at obtaining good work performance.
Needs (deficiencies), which alter the balance of people’s physical and/or mental conditions.
Desires (intentional impulses), originated from needs.
Goals, towards which impulses tend to satisfy needs.
What the manager should know about motivation?
The motivation originated can be directed towards the increase of the work or its decrease, depending on the prevailing factors. Let’s see some of them:
They can inspire towards the first case, increased work:
The desire for promotion.
The purpose of doing a good job.
Economic or other wishes.
The desire to learn.
Fear of losing your job.
Convince your work is worth it.
They can orient towards the second, decrease in work:
Management relationship problems.
Difficulties or complications with work.
Inertia not to work.
These aspects are not the only ones that influence motivation, however, the key to the problem is to raise the aspects that cause a positive effect and eliminate or minimize those that enhance the negative effect, or otherwise, make the goals compatible with the organization with personal needs.
The motivating aspects are not the same in all people.
The motivating aspects vary with time and the situation in the same person.
What the organization achieves is the result of the joint effort of all people.
Nothing creates a greater commitment than feeling necessary.
The essential factor in motivated people is doing things right.
An organization must be able to create conditions for an average employee to make efforts and obtain extraordinary results.
One of the main capabilities of a manager (if not the main one) is his ability to generate and awaken enthusiasm.
Motivation is not a personal trait but the interaction of the individual and the situation.
Motivating is not easy, for this, you must know the needs of people.
The main motivating factors within organizations are:
The results: successful results = more motivated worker.
Participation: when the worker participates in the planning of tasks, his personal and professional development is stimulated.
Knowledge of objectives: the worker who knows in depth the objectives of the organization, his area, and his position turns out to be more motivated than the one who does not know them or does not do so superficially.
The task: a task well done (a service provided with excellence, a product of the highest quality, etc.) is what motivates the worker the most because it is their greatest satisfaction and reward.
Remuneration: salary, although not enough to ensure good performance, is a motivating factor that adds up to make the employee feel more valued.
The rewards: the incentive for a job well done turns out to be motivating most of the time.
Recognition: promotion by merit, public congratulations, and other types of recognition promote positive worker motivation.
Responsibility: the ability to plan, set goals, make decisions, and innovate are elements that provide a greater degree of motivation within organizations.
Growth: training, development, and promotion have a positive impact on making work productive.
Punishments and sanctions: they are a double-edged sword that can lead to motivation and negative behaviors, their use should be done primarily to correct unwanted behaviors that go against the values and organizational culture.
In this article, we briefly explained the concept of motivation then highlighted the types of motivation to form it easier for you to rent the proper professional supported your business needs.